medicine: class notes
to use and record advanced medical
of doctor went one of three ways: treat,
struggle to treat, not treat. 3/49
were considered hopeless in Smith
not know of cellular biology, so did not
know of antibiotics.
contributed to discovery and development
of medicine. Men wrote the ideas
self medicate (eat herbs for diseases,
religion and magic were all used by the
circa 800 BCE (Odyssey) notes Es as
being the best physicians in the world.
believed that the body was born healthy
and got sick because of foreign agents. Invisible
agents were attributed to evil forces.
oil, with figs and dates –
acid – heal burns (from acacia
– cooling, stimulant, carminative
(expels gas from stomach or bowel);
tea for stomach illness.
(Egyptian word meaning “father.” It
was the “father” of all
restorative tonics; rich in vitamin
A, D, E and K, and minerals).
Thought to have rid the body
of inorganic mineral deposits.
matricaria chamomilla has
anti-bacterial effect. (Inhibits
staph, streptococcus, leptospira and
(carried by rats) enters skin
through skin abrasions while person
works in contaminated water. Also
it acts as an anti-inflammatory
has sedative qualities if taken
seed and stem: - anti-inflammatory,
– workers went on strike to get
provisions, an important one was
berries – stronger than some
modern drugs as anti-inflammatory;
alleviates headaches (reduces
– antioxidant (preservative);
moderate effect against pathogenic
fungi (fungus which makes one sick)
– vapor inhaled to prevent cough;
reduces blood sugar, expels worms.
– applied to ulcers (external and
internal) and swellings.
cup figs and grapes, bread dough, pit
corn, fresh Earth, onion, and
a hog's tooth and put it inside of four
sugar cakes. Eat for four days.
a mixture of milk of a woman who has
borne a male child, gum, and, ram's
hair. While administering this mixture
say: Thy son Horus is burnt in the
desert. Is there any water there? There
is no water. I have water in my mouth
and a Nile between my thighs. I have
come to extinguish the fire.
for Lesions of the Skin:
After the scab
has fallen off put on it: Scribe's
excrement. Mix in fresh milk and apply
as a poultice.
brain-of-tortoise with honey. Place on
the eye and say:
is a shouting in the southern sky in
darkness, There is an uproar in the
northern sky, The Hall of Pillars falls
into the waters. The crew of the sun god
bent their oars so that the heads at his
side fall into the water, Who leads
hither what he finds? I lead forth what
I find. I lead forth your heads. I lift
up your necks. I fasten what has been
cut from you in its place. I lead you
forth to drive away the god of Fevers
and all possible deadly arts.
included, senna, honey, thyme, juniper,
frankincense, cumin, colocynth (all for
digestion); pomegranate root, henbane
(for worms) as well as flax, oakgall,
pine-tar, manna, bayberry, ammi,
alkanet, Acanthus, aloe, caraway, cedar,
coriander, cyprus, elderberry, fennel,
garlic, wild lettuce, nasturtium, onion,
peppermint, papyrus, poppy-plant,
saffron, sycamore, watermelon, wheat and
tied with string
with burning incense
- pot with
flowers of Upper and Lower Egypt
- pot on
cubit or papyrus
without side knot (or a case holding
– 1700 BCE (infor evident in 2640
5 meters long; 48 surgical cases
(wounds to head, neck, shoulders, breast
"Take the water (humor)
contained in pigs eyes, take true
antimony, red lead, natural honey, of
each 1 Ro (about 15 cc); pulverize it
finely and combine it into one mass
which should be injected into the ear of
the patient and he will be cured
immediately. Do and thou shalt see.
Really excellent! Thou shalt recite as a
spell: I have brought this which was
applied to the seat of yonder and
replaces the horrible suffering. Twice." This
cures Stupid Vision.
(110 pages, 877 remedies); 10 meters
long, 30 cm wide, internal medicine,
plus diseases of the eye, skin,
extremities, gynecology and some
and Hesyre (time of Zoser) ca. 2725
schools (medical schools):
interrogation (taking a history),
inspection and palpation (feeling
the affected or injured area)
brain, pulse related to heart. The
brain was the seat of the body. The
heart provided blood vessels that
were hollow. They
could not distinguish between blood
vessels, nerves, tendons and
history (questions to patient),
examination and palpation and
stool, urine, blood, sputum)
about inguinal hernias. Cough! (heat
application to reduce strangulated
prescriptions, performed surgery.
was diagnosed by placing garlic in
the vagina for one night. If the
next day the woman can taste or
smell it in her mouth, she is
fertile. This is based upon the
connection between the genital parts
and interior of the body. Such
connection would be lost in a case
of obstructed Fallopian tubes. “To
cause a woman to stop being
pregnant, be it one, two or three
years: part of acacia, colocynth,
dates, finely ground in a hin
[Hebrew measurment of liguid = circa
5 litres] of honey, fibers are
moistened therewith, introduced into
diagnosis: urine of pregnant woman:
male child – urine germinates
wheat, female- urine germinates
sit on two bricks, arms on knees. Ease
delivery with burning resin or
massaging the abdomen by saffron
powder and beer.
– insert oil and fat.
– insert crocodile oil, acacia gum
or honey, and natron. (acacia gum
dissolved produses lactic acid makes
breast fed for three years. If not
possible, cow’s milk.
with needle and thread. Raw
meat (first day) prevents bleeding,
then astringent (biting or caustic
liquid, closes pores) herbs, butter,
honey (hygroscopic= absorbs water)
promotes white blood cell growth,
and bread (moldy = penicillin).
existed in E times.
was removed with a knife.
and rectal prolapse were treated by
medication, suppositories, laxatives
and enema. For burns,
a mixture of milk of a woman who has
borne a male child, gum, and,
ram’s hair was applied.
strictures were dilated using reeds.
This was the earliest non-surgical
intervention ever applied in
history. In modern medicine, the
first intervention was reported in
the AD 1880’s by catgut balloons.
– frankincense, date-wine,
turpentine and acacia gum.
– hot fire-drill.
– opiates. Local
anaesthesia – water mixed with
vinaigre over Memphite stone. This
makes carbon dioxide, a known
analgesic (relieves pain).
bones were set. Possibly
knew of screwing bones together.
a dislocated joint. (Kocher’s
of sciatic pain (down leg from back)
of angina pectoris (heart attack)
(asthma?)– inhale honey, cream,
milk, carob, colocynth and date
for inhalation: “…..
You should then bring 7 stones and
heat them on fire. Take one of them,
place parts of these drugs over it,
cover it with a new jar with a
pierced bottom. Introduce a tube of
reed through this hole and put your
mouth on this tube so that you
swallow its fumes. The same with
every stone … “.
pain (arthritis) – ointments
containing fat, oil, bone marrow,
gum, honey, flour, natron, onion,
cumin, flax, frankincense or pine. Today
in E. flax seed (linseed) and sake
or lizard fat is still used for this
brain was responsible for paralysis. Had
12 headache prescriptions.
– fish (Siluris – electric
catfish) in fat and oil.
(drilling holes in head for relief
– castor oil tree berries; chew
and swallow with beer. “Leaves of castor oil
plant 1/4, dates of male palm 5/6,
Cyprus grass 1/16, stalk of Puppy
plant 1/16, Coriander 1/16, cold
beer 1/2, keep moist, strain, and
take for four days”.
–green onion, gruel, oil, honey,
wax, water, cook and take for 4
blindness – liver of ox, roasted
and crushed. (Vitamin A)
– tortoise brain and honey. First
surgery Alexandria 31st
abscess – drill holes to drain. Treated
pyorrhea, loose teeth, caries.
wire to secure a loose tooth.
and artificial teeth
used: sulfer, antimony and zinc,
meats, 160 plants.
– adjusted to patient’s age.
workers’ pay included : radish,
garlic, onions. These
have antibiotic properties.
= learned from Ibis bird.
and mind were the same thing to an
of depression and hysteria.
mud and clay,
types of doctors:
sunu = physician;
priest of Sekment
sins) sau = magic physician
eyes, teeth, mouth, stomach pains,
uncertain diseases, “Shepherd of
the anus of the Pharaoh”
= old female physician, i.e., first
= name of the medical schools: Abydos which Ramses IV
visited frequently its library. At
least four other houses of life were
attached to temples at Bubastis,
Edfu, Tel-el-Amarna and Kom-Ombo.
had a code of ethics and probably
swore an oath.
Persian king arrived in the 27th
Dynasty (525 BCE). Lost
in Upper Egypt. Returned
during Festival of the Grains. Rejoicing
people he thought were making fun of
Destroyed schools and temples
Darius, to win friendship, rebuilt
citizens got medical care (medicare)
workers on the pyramids could claim
leaves were allowed.
people did not have to lift stones.
fixed retirement age.
hours work in morning, break for
meal and nap, 4 hours work late
and mines had doctors supplied.
country in history to practice hair
trimming to avoid insect
practiced in modern armies.
= Egypt in Egyptian. Chemestry
comes from it.
god of healers and embalmers
delivering a baby
Imhotep, god of