Essay Writing Skills

Footnotes and Endnotes

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Footnotes, or endnotes, are used by the author for one of four purposes:

1. to cite sources of information
2. to provide additional information to comments not suitable for inclusion in the text
3. to direct the reader to other opinions
4. to refer the reader to other pages or sections of the text.

What is the difference between endnotes and footnotes?

There is little difference between the two in how they are presented and either one is acceptable.

The only difference between the two is that footnotes appear at the bottom of the page at which the reference was made and endnotes appear on a separate page with the heading Endnotes which is placed just before the bibliography.


Where to put footnotes

All footnotes are to be numbered consecutively throughout the paper, beginning with the
number 1.

*Do not restart the count with each new page.

The footnote number is a raised number (superscript).

Footnotes are placed at the end of the relevant words or sentence.

Footnote references come after all punctuation except dashes.

Footnotes are recorded in 10 point while endnotes are recorded as the rest of the work at 12 point.

Working with Quotations

A quotation is necessary when the author copies the words of another author word-for-word.

When writing your paper you should always try to paraphrase other people's work (put it in your own words).

Use quotations only when the original work is said so well that to change it would take away meaning or emphasis.

Use quotations to fill in and support your own presentation rather than using your own writing to tie together different quotations.

Recording Quotations

Quotations three lines or less, no matter where they start or end, are placed within quotation marks and the footnote is placed after all punctuation.

Quotations four lines or longer are treated differently. Move the margin inward 10 spaces on the left side. Quotation marks are not required as the indentation signals the quotation. The footnote is placed at the end of the quotation. Continue to use double spacing throughout the quotation.

Internet Links for footnote/endnote sites

How to Write Endnotes/Footnotes - Examples in MLA Style

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