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Grade 8 Atlantic Canada Outcomes Covered in the project

• distinguish between plant and animal cells (304-5)

• work co-operatively with team members to develop and construct models of cells (211-3)

• explain that it is important to use proper terms when comparing plant and animal cells (109-13)

• explain that growth and reproduction depend on cell division (304-6)

• relate the needs and functions of various cells and organs to the needs and functions of the human organism as a whole (304-8)

• evaluate individual and group processes used in researching the roles of the main orgasystems (211-4)

Instructional Goals:

Eigth grade science students should be able to identify and name the parts of the animal and plant cells, describe and list the functions of the animal and plant organelles, and describe and list the differences between animal and plant cells. Students should know specifically : a) students know cells function similarly in all living organisms, b) students know the characteristics that distinguish plant cell from animal cells, including chloroplasts and cell walls, c) students know the nucleus is the repository for genetic information in plant and animal cells, d) students know that mitochondria liberate energy for the work that cells do and that chloroplasts capture sunlight energy for photosynthesis. www.ca.edu.gov

 

Goal: Student groups will first name the parts of animal cells and plant cells, and the differences between them.

1.0 Name Parts of Animal Cell
  Name:
    1.1 Nucleus
    1.2 Lysosomes
    1.3 Cell membrane
    1.4 Mitochondria
    1.5 Cytoplasm
    1.6 Golgi body
    1.7 Vacuole
    1.8 Ribosome
    1.9 Endoplasmic-Reticulum
    1.10 Nucleolus
    1.11 Nuclear membrane

2.0 Name Parts of Plant Cell
  Name:
    2.1 Nucleus
    2.2 Ribosome
    2.3 Mitochondria
    2.4 Choloroplasts
    2.5 Cell membrane
    2.6 Cytoplasm
    2.7 Cell wall
    2.8 Vacuole
    2.9 Golgi body
    2.10 Endoplasmic-Reticulum
    2.11 Nuclear membrane
    2.11 Large vacuole
    2.12 Nucleolus

3.0 Difference of Plant Cell
  Name:
    3.1 Large vacuole
    3.2 Cell wall
    3.3 Choloroplasts

4.0 Difference of Animal Cell
    4.1 Lysosomes

Goal: Student groups will name the functions of the animal and plant cell organelles.

5.0 List functions of the plant and animal cell organelles

5.1 Nucleus
Directs all of the cell's activities, including reproduction

5.2 Nucleolus
The structure where ribosomes are made

5.3 Nuclear membrane
Protects the nucleus, materials pass in and out through pores

5.4 Cell membrane
Forms a barrier between the cytoplasm and the environment outside of the cell

5.5 Cytoplasm
Gel-like fluid in which many organelles are found

5.6 Chloroplast
Capture energy from sunlight and produces food for plant cell

5.7 Ribosome
Function as factories to produce proteins. Found attached to the outer surface of the endoplasmic reticulum and floating free in the cytoplasm.

5.8 Lysosome
In animal cells, they contain chemicals that break down food particles and worn out-cell parts

5.9 Mitochondria
Rod-shaped organelles and are the powerhouses of the cell. They produce most of the cells energy

5.10 Vacuole
Structure that stores food, water, waste and other materials

5.11 Golgi body
Receives materials through the endoplasmic reticulum and sends them to other parts of the cell

5.12 Endoplasmic reticulum
Network of passageways that carry the materials from one part of the cell to another

Cell City Introduction!

Floating around in the cytoplasm are small structures called organelles. Like the organs in your own body, each one carries out a specific function necessary for the cell to survive.

Imagine the cell as a miniature city. The organelles might represent companies, places or parts of the city because they each have similar jobs. Below are the descriptions of important parts of the Cell City.

A. City Limits - control what goes in and out of the city

B. Road System - Allows for movement throughout the city.

C. City Hall - Controls all the activities of the city.

D. City Auditor - Stores all the records of the city and passes them on as the city grows.

E. City Planning Office - A place in the city hall where plans are made for the construction of the city.

F. Construction Company - Builds structures for the city.

G. Delivery Van - delivers products made at the construction company to other locations in the city.

H. Food Processing Plant - Processes large quantities of food entering the city into smaller packages that can be used more easily.

I. Warehouse - Stores materials needed by the city.

J. Power Company - Produces energy for the city.

K. Solar Power Plant – Uses the sun’s energy to produce power for the city.

 

As you move through this worksheet, see if you can match the important parts of the city listed above to the specific organelles found in cells. Be sure to write neatly, and in complete sentences.

 

 

1. The nucleus is a large, round/oval structure usually located near the center of the cell. It is the control center for all the activities of the cell.

i) What company or place does the nucleus resemble in a Cell City?

ii)Why do you think so?

i) _____________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________

ii) _____________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________

2. The cell membrane is a thin, flexible envelope that surrounds the cell. It allows the cell to change shape and controls what goes into and out of the cell.

 i) What company or place does the cell membrane resemble in a Cell City?

 ii)Why do you think so?

i) _____________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________

ii) _____________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________

3. The endoplasmic reticulum consists of a network of tube-like passageways that proteins from the ribosomes are transported through.

i) What company or place does the endoplasmic reticulum resemble in a Cell City?

ii)Why do you think so?

i) _____________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________

ii) _____________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________

4. The ribosomes are small grain-like bodies made mostly of RNA and produced in the nucleolus. Proteins are constructed at the ribosomes. i) What company or place do the ribosomes resemble in a Cell City? ii)Why do you think so?

i) _____________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________

ii) _____________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________

5. The nucleolus is a small, dense object fond in the middle of the nucleus. It makes the RNA for the cell.

i) What company or place does the nucleolus resemble in a Cell City?

ii)Why do you think so?

i) _____________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________

ii) _____________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________

6. The jelly-like area between the nucleus and the cell membrane is called the cytoplasm.  It helps organelles move throughout the cell.

i) What company or place does the cytoplasm resemble in a Cell City?

ii)Why do you think so?

i) _____________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________

ii) _____________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________

7. The mitochondria are tiny bean-shaped structures in the cytoplasm with a smooth outer membrane, and a greatly folded inner membrane. They supply the energy for the cell by transforming sugars into energy.

i) What company or place does the mitochondria resemble in a Cell City?

ii)Why do you think so?

i) _____________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________

ii) _____________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________

8. The chromosomes are rod-shaped bodies found in the nucleus. They are made of DNA and protein. They contain all the information to run the cell. They also pass on the hereditary traits of the cell to new cells.

i) What company or place do the chromosomes resemble in a Cell City?

ii)Why do you think so?

i) _____________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________

ii) _____________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________

9. The chloroplast is an oval, green structure found in the cytoplasm. It contains chlorophyll. It captures the sun’s energy and uses it to produce sugars in a process called photosynthesis.

i) What company or place do the chloroplasts resemble in a Cell City?

ii)Why do you think so?

i) _____________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________

ii) _____________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________

10. The lysosomes are small round structures found in the cytoplasm. They contain digestive enzymes that break down large food particles in to sugars and other simple substances.

i) What company or place do the lysosomes resemble in a Cell City?

ii) Why do you think so?

i) _____________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________

ii) _____________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________

11. The vacuole is a large, round sac found in the cytoplasm. It stores water, food, wastes, or other materials needed by the cell.

i) What company or place does the vacuole resemble in a Cell City?

ii) Why do you think so?

i) _____________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________

ii) _____________________________________________________________

 

 

Cell City Suggested Answers

 To help you understand cell organelles here is a comparison of cell organelles and what each of these would represent within a city.

  Cell Organelles

             City Analogies

Cell Membrane

City border

Cell Wall

City Wall

Cytoplasm

Lawns

Endoplasmic Reticulum

Highway  or road system

Ribosomes

Lumber or brick yard

Golgi Bodies

Post Office or UPS

Chloroplasts

Solar Energy Plants

Nuclear Membrane

City Hall Fence with security guard

Mitochondria

Energy Plants

Nucleus

City Hall

DNA

Original Blueprints or the city

RNA

Copies of Blueprints

Nucleolus

Copy Machine

Lysosomes

Waste Disposal/ Recyclers

Vacuole

Warehouses, water towers or garbage dumps

Protoplasm

Air or atmosphere

Chromosomes

Rolled up blueprints

Proteins

Lumber or bricks

  

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